6th Standard History Important Short Notes for TNPSC / UPSC Exams: Download as PDF

Anthropology And Archaeology:
Archaeology: Archaeology is the study of pre historic humans remained materials used by pre historic humans. The main source for archaeological studies is excavated material remains.

Anthropology:Anthropology is the study of humans and evolutionary history.The word anthropology is derived from two Greek words: anthropos meaning "man" or "human"; and logos, meaning "thought" or "reason."

Radio carbon dating: Radio carbon dating is a technique used to ascertain the period. It was found out that the foot prints of humans they had discovered were about 3.5 millions years old.Anthropologists have unearthed the footprints of humans in Tanzania. They were found in rock bed s submerged under the sand.

Human Evolution:
  • Before 460 crores years earth evolves.
  • Before 20 lakhs years man starts to walk.
  • Before 3 lakhs years man spread over the earth.
  • Before 8000 years human started cultivation
  • Before 5000 years human started civilization
 Stages of Human Evolution:

Stage Name
Time Period
Features
Australopithecus
Between 4-2 million years ago
Walking on two legs
Homo habilis
Between 2.3-1.4 million years ago
Tool maker.
Homo erectus
1.8 million years ago
Fire invention.
Neanderthal
Between 130000-40000  years ago
Hunting
Homo Sapiens
300000 years ago
Weapon making
Cromagnons
50000 years ago in the eastern Africa and 40000 years ago in the West Asia and in south-eastern Europe
Present Human

Nomadic: Herdsmen without any fixed home moving about in search of pastures for their cattle.

Barter: Exchange of goods without involving money.

Evolution: The gradual change leading to a more advanced development. In other words, evolution means the process in which humankind changes and develops into an advanced stage.

Pre-Historic Rock Art of Tamilnadu :
  • Keelvalai -Villupuram
  • Usilampatti - Madurai
  • Kumuthipathi – Coimbatore
  • Mavadaippu - Coimbatore
  • Porivarai cave-karikaiyur Nilgris
People and their Habitat:
  • Australopithecus - East Africa
  • Homohabilis - South Africa
  • Homoerectus - Africa and Asia
  • Neanderthal - Eurasia (Europe and Asia)
  • Cro-Magnons - France
  • Peking - China
  • Homo sapiens - Africa
  • Heidelbergs - London
How the modern human has evolved?
1. Humans in erect position and walking on two legs happened much later.
2. Changes in thumb so that they can hold things tightly.
3. Development of brain.

What is the main cause in the formation of different races?
Homo sapiens migrated out of eastern Africa settled in different parts of the world. Their lifestyle also evolved and they made it suitable to the environment where they lived. So humans in different places adopted different forms of lifestyle. Based on the weather, climate and nature of the living place, their physique and complexion also differed. This resulted in the formation of different races.

Advancement in Human With Passage Of Time:
Hunting and Food Gathering:
Hunting Methods:
1. Go as a group and hunt the prey.
2. Dig a pit and trap the animals and hunt.

Stone Tools and Weapons: Humans with the help of the flint made sharp weapons and tools.

Art of Flaking:Keeping a stone in the bottom and sharpening it with another stone.To make a stone tool, two stones were taken. One was used as a hammer to sharpen the other for removing flakes.

Fire: Fire was used by early human to protect him from predators, for cooking food and for the light during night.

Invention of the Wheel: The invention of wheel is considered to be the foremost invention. human invention was the wheel. This was the first scientific invention of humans using their brain and cognitive skills.

Pot Making: Invention of wheel made pot making easier. This step help them save and store their food and other materials.

Ancient Rock Paintings:
Before the use of language, humans expressed their feelings through actions and also recorded it in rock paintings. In this way, the rock paintings give some information about the past.In India, we can see many paintings in rocks and caves. Approximately there are 750 caves, in which 500 caves have paintings. The rock paintings depict hunting pictures of the male and the female, dancing pictures and pictures of children playing. We get knowledge about the past lifestyle through rock paintings.

From Nomadic to Settled Life : The World’s Earliest Farmers:
The seed of fruits and the nuts they ate were thrown into the soil. During rains, the soil gave it life. Some days later, the saplings sprouted from the soil. By observation and logic, they learn that:
  1. plant grows from a single seed and yields lots of fruits and vegetables.
  2. seeds that fall in the river beds sprout easily.
  3. plants grow faster in water fed areas.
  4. alluvial soil is more suitable for plant growth than any other.
How did human started agriculture and farming which finally leads them to settle in one place?
Man realised that with proper sowing and nurturing, they could increase the number of plants more than the ones that grew naturally. Thus agriculture and farming came into existence. They domesticated the animals and used them in their farming.It enabled them to settle down in a place. 

Human And The domestication of animals:
They found out that the dogs could sniff other animals and chase them away. So humans found them useful for hunting. Thus dogs became the first animal to be domesticated by humans. Following the dogs, they started domesticating hen, goat and cow.

Trade and commerce developed and towns and cities emerged (Barter System):
With the permanent settlement human learn agriculture and slowly developed skills of handicraft. This permanent settlement in a place increased the yield of crops. Now they had grains in excess of what they consumed. The surplus grains were exchanged with other groups for the other things they were in need of. This is called the barter system. Thus trade and commerce developed and towns and cities emerged.

Some Important Points To Be Noticed:
  • Cromagnons learned to live in caves.
  • Lascaus caves in France is the evidence for cave living of Cromagnons. They habitude to bury the dead.
  • Even today in the villages of Nilgiris district in Tamil Nadu, people have the habit of making fire without use of match box.

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