General Knowledge Notes For All Competitive Exams - Biology-Part -03


NATURAL RESOURCES: USE AND CONSERVATION 

Resource : Any natural or artificial substance, energy or organism, which is used by human
being for its welfare is called a resource. Two types of resources are -
(a) Natural resources
(b) Artificial resources.

Classification Of Natural resources : Natural resources are classified into -
 (i) Inexhaustible resources may be renewable such as air, water (in oceans), solar energy etc.
(ii) Exhaustible resources may be non-renewable such as metals fossil fuels,soil, forest, fresh water, minerals, fossil fuels, etc.  
Soil is the uppermost layer of earth’s crust, which supports growth of plants.It is both a renewable and non-renewable resource.

Conservation: It is the sum total of activities, which can derive benefits from natural resources but at the same time prevent excessive use leading to destruction or neglect. Water is the most important component of all life forms. It regulates climate, generates electricity and is also useful in agriculture and industries. With increase in population and industrial growth, water is degraded day by day. Conservation and management of water are essential for the survival of mankind, plants and animals

Biodiversity : The variety of all plants, animals and microbes of a region is termed biodiversity.
Biodiversity is essential for maintenance of ecosystem. Though biodiversity is important for our survival, it is under threat due to the various human activities. So we should protect biodiversity by strategies like,
(i) In situ conservation
(ii) Ex situ conservation.

Endangered Species : The endangered species are those, which have been reduced in number to a
critical level and facing a high risk of extinction in the near future.The plants, animals and microorganisms other than the cultivated plants and domesticated animals constitute wildlife. Wildlife forms an important resource for maintaining ecological balance. Conserve it by establishing biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries etc.

Sustainable Development : It is the development that meets the needs of the present generation and conserves it for the future generation.

Main categories of energy sources:There are two main categories of energy sources. They are-
(i) Conventional Sources of Energy: Conventional sources of energy may be
      (a) Conventional Non-Renewable Energy (Mostly fossil fuels found under the ground like coal,                oil and natural gas etc.)
       (b) Conventional Renewable Energy (firewood, cattle dung, charcoal etc.)

(ii) non-conventional sources of energy: The non-conventional energy includes solar energy, hydel energy, wind energy, nuclear energy, hydrogen energy, geothermal energy, biogas energy, tidal energy, Bio-fuel, etc.

Why to conserve energy? 
The demand for energy and exploitation of the energy sources is increasing dayby-day. Energy sources are depleting fast. There is an urgent need to conserve energy else adequate energy will not be available in future.

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