International Civil Aviation Organisation(ICAO)
- It was formed in the International Civil Aviation Conference held in Chicago from 1 Nov. to 7 Dec. 1994. Its aims and objectives are to develop international air navigation and foster the planning and development of international transport. Headquarters: Lebanon.
International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
- It was established at Bretton Woods Conference in July 1994. Its object is to assist the member nations in the economic reconstruction and development of the territories. The bank advances loans to the membernations for development purposes and encourages private foreign investment and also arranges loans to its own security. It guarantees loans by Private Investors. Headquarters : Washington.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
- It was established on 27th December 1945 and it operates from 1st March 1947. It works for the promotion of International Trade. It helps those countries with foreign exchange whose balance of trade is in unfavourable position. Headquarters: Washington.
World Health Organisation (WHO)
- WHO came into existence on April 7, 1948. It aims to assist the Governments to raise the standard of public health and impart information of health research. It also promotes in improvement of nutrition, housing, sanitation and recreation. Headquarters : Geneva.
Universal Postal Union (UPU)
- It was formally established on 1st July 1875. It has been established to alleviate uncertainty. Confusion and excessive cost of international postal communications by writing its member countries in a single postal territory for the reciprocal exchange of mail. The postal convention has been extended and improved by the various Postal Congress. Headquarters : Switzerland.
International Telecommunications Union (I.T.U.)
- The International Telegraph Union founded in Paris in 1865 and the International Radio Telegraph Union, founded in Berlin in 1906 by the Madrid Convention of 1932 to form the ITU. Its main purpose is to bring the improvement and rational use of telecommunications and increase the efficiency of the telecommunication services by maintaining and extending international cooperation. Headquarters : Geneva, Switzerland.
International Finance Corporation (IFC)
- It was established in July 1956. It is affiliated to World Bank. The basic object of the Corporation is to supplement the activities of the World Bank. It will seek to bring together investment opportunities, domestic and foreign private capital and experienced management. The membership of the Corporation will be open to those countries which are members of the World Bank. Headquarters : Washington.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
- It was set up under the U.N. to make recommendations for the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. All the nations are to pay a part of fissionable material and also Uranium at the disposal of the Agency. The Agency was established at meeting of 82 nations held in New York in September, 1956. Headquarters : Vienna.
The General Agreement on Tariffs andTrade (GATT):
- It was negotiated in 1947 and came into force on January 1, 1948. It is the only treaty setting rules for world trade. Its functions are to ease trade barriers and establish rules of fair trade. In recent years, GATT made special efforts to develop international trade and has also given particular emphasis on increasing the export trade of developing countries. GATT was replaced by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) on January 1, 1995. Headquarters : Geneva.
World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)
- Conference of Directors of the International Meteorological Organisation meeting in Washington in 1947, adopted a convention creating the W.M.O. It aims at improving weather observations and to adopt common measures for weather reporting in order to prevent-disaster caused by natural calamities like cyclones, typhoons etc. Headquarter : Geneva, Switzerland.
World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)
- The convention establishing WIPO was signed at Stockholm in 1967 by 51 countries and came into force in April 1970. In Dec. 1974 WIPO became a specialized agency of the U.N. Headquarters : Geneva, Switzerland.
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
- The establishment of IFAD was one of the major actions proposed by 1974 World Food Conference. The agreement for IFAD came into force on 30 Nov. 1977 following attainment of initial pledges of $ 1,000 and the agency began its operations. Headquarters : Rome, Italy.
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO):
- It provides developing and underdeveloped countries with advice on all aspects of industrial policy converted into a specialized agency by U.N. in 1985. Headquarters : Vienna.