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Updated NTA UGC NET Syllabus for International and Area Studies



Unit – I




  • Nature of International Politics.

  • Theories and approaches to the study of International Politics (including the area studies approach).

  • Nationalism, Nation-State and challenges to Nation – States.






Unit – II




  • Contemporary World Order : End of Cold War, United States as a pre-eminent power and multipolarity ( European Union, China and Japan ).

  • Globalisation and its implications.

  • Environment and Ecological Problems.

  • Human Rights






Unit – III




  • Indian Foreign Policy:

  • Basic Objectives and Principles.

  • India and its neighbours.

  • India and major powers.

  • Major issues of Indian Foreign Policy.






Unit – IV




  • United Nations:

  • Collective security, peace – keeping and peace-making.

  • Role of International Law.

  • UN agencies and other International Organizations.

  • Restructuring of the United Nations.






Unit – V




  • Theories of International Politics: Realist, Idealist, Systems and Decision making.

  • Role of Power in International Politics: Balance of Power, Bipolarity, Unipolarity and Multipolarity.

  • The concept of Nation, National Interest and National Security Collective Security; The role of the United Nations.

  • Post – Cold War and the emerging World Order.

  • Politics of Liberalisation, Globalisation and World Trade Organization. Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence and World Peace.






Unit – VI




  • Concept, components and models of National and International security.

  • Challenges and threats to India’s security since Independence – external and internal dimensions.

  • Defence mechanism of Nation-States: India, US and the Peoples Republic of China.

  • India’s Security policies and Nuclear doctrine.

  • Problems of Armament and Disarmament – Economic, Political and Scientific dimensions.

  • Concept and theories of conflict and conflict resolution including Confidence Building Measures (CBMs).

  • Trans-national Threats and Security: International Terrorism, Drug – trafficking, Proliferation of small arms.

  • Weapons of mass – destruction – nuclear, biological, chemical and weather weapons and arms control and disarmament.

  • Evolution of strategic thoughts – Kautilya, Clausewitz, A. T. Mahan, Mackinder and Douhet.

  • New modes of warfare – Low Intensity conflict, Electronic and Cyber warfare.






Unit – VII




  • Introduction:

  • Historical Background-Empires

  • Geo-political set-up

  • Interaction with the West

  • National Awakening

  • Disintegration of Ottoman Empire

  • Palestine problem

  • Inter – war Developments

  • Ideologies:

  • Pan – Arabism

  • Pan – Islamism

  • Pan – Turanism

  • Etatism

  • Zionism

  • Nasserism

  • Secularism

  • West Asia and the World:

  • Major powers’ interests in West Asia

  • Cold War

  • Oil Dynamics

  • West Asia and India

  • General Themes:

  • Regional Organizations

  • Intra – Arab relations / rivalries

  • Post – Cold War Scenario – Continuity and Change

  • Social transformation

  • Economy

  • Islamic Resurgence

  • State Systems 





Unit – VIII




  • Basic Features of the Region:

  • Land and People – Geo – political and Socio – economic Setting.

  • Colonialism and Nationalism :

  • Patterns, Major Feature’s and Impact of Western Colonialism-Independence Movements-Maintenance of Independence by Thailand throughout its History.

  • Developments in Post-Independent Period:

  • Problems of Communalism and Nation-Building – Communist Challenges.

  • Role of Military – Challenges to Democracy – Secessionist Movements – Economic Transformation – mtra – Regional Conflicts and Cooperation.

  • Foreign Policies of South East Asian Countries :

  • Determinants, Objectives and Goals-Role of External Powers – USA, Russia, China, Japan and India.





Unit – IX




  • Geo – cultural Aspects:

  • Land, People, Ecology, Environment, Languages and Culture.

  • Historical Aspects:

  • Ancient African Empires

  • Indigenous political systems

  • Atlantic slave trade – its impact and implications.

  • Industrial Revolution and the elimination of slave trade.

  • Colonialism in Africa:

  • European partition of Africa

  • Asian (Indian) migration into Africa

  • Patterns of Colonial rule in Africa

  • Legacy of Colonialism

  • Growth of nationalism and Liberation Movements in Africa.

  • Political Aspects:

  • Political independence and Constitutional changes in Africa.

  • Growth of political parties and party – systems.

  • The role of military

  • Democratisation process in Africa.

  • Rise and fall of Apartheid in South Africa.

  • Concepts of Pan – Africanism and African socialism.

  • Economic Aspects:

  • Nature of African Economy.

  • Underdevelopment and Dependency patterns in Africa.

  • Neo – colonial penetration and problems of economic independence.

  • Development strategies in post – independence period.

  • Structural adjustment programs in Africa – an evaluation.

  • Problem of poverty in Africa.

  • Africa’s debt crisis.

  • Globalisation and its impact on Africa.

  • Regional economic cooperation and development (ECOWAS, SADC, COMESA, EAC and AEC).

  • Social Aspects:

  • Problems of nation – building in Africa.

  • Role of education

  • State of Human Rights in Africa.

  • Role of civil society and women.

  • Problem of AIDS in Africa.

  • Ethnic conflicts in Africa.

  • Social change and structural transformation.

  • Africa and the World:

  • Africa and the emerging International System

  • Africa and European dominance

  • Africa and the Cold War

  • Post – Cold War scenario in Africa

  • Africa and the New World Order

  • Africa and the United Nations

  • Inter-regional Cooperation

  • Role of the Organization of African Unity ( OAU )

  • Africa and the Non – aligned Movement ( NAM )

  • The Role and Relevance of the African Union ( AU ) 2001

  • Africa and the Arab World

  • India – Africa Relations






Unit – X




  • Russia and the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) in World Affairs.

  • Soviet Period From Lenin to Stalin:

  • Civil War in Russia and its impact on polity and economy War, Communism and New Economic policy.

  • Nationality Policy after the Revolution and the formation of the USSR.

  • Industrialization debate and Economic Development under the Five-Year Plans.

  • Soviet Foreign Policy

  • Constitutional Theories and Soviet Federalism.

  • Soviet Union Under Khrushchev and Brezhnev:

  • Twentieth Congress of the CPSU and Destalinization.

  • New Approaches to Third World and the Non-aligned Movement.

  • Brezhnev and Kosygin leadership in World Affairs.

  • Constitution of 1977

  • Mikhail Gorbachev Period:

  • Gorbachev’s New Political Thinking-Political and economic reforms.

  • Foreign Policy under Gorbachev and end of the Cold War.

  • Break-up of the USSR.

  • Post-Soviet Russia and CIS:

  • Russia under Boris Yeltsin – Political and economic dimensions.

  • Systemic transformation of Russia and the CIS.

  • New Orientation in Russia’s Foreign Policy.

  • Russia and the CIS

  • Indo-Russian Relations

  • Developments in Central Asia and the Transcaucasia. 





Unit – XI




  • Land and People:

  • Geo – political setting

  • Multi – culture social structures – diversities of race, language and religion Resource endowment – natural and human resources.

  • Colonialism and Nationalism:

  • Patterns of Colonialism

  • Major features of Colonialism

  • Nature of colonial impact on South Asian societies.

  • Nationalism and Nationalist movements.

  • Communal and Separatist Movements – genesis of Pakistan and Bangladesh.

  • Society and Culture of South Asia:

  • Population – General attributes and migration patterns.

  • Major Social institutions and Groups.

  • Dynamics of Social change.

  • Political Systems of South Asian States:

  • Organization of Government Order and Underlying principles.

  • Post-independence Era – constitutional developments and movements for democracy – Elections, Political parties and Pressure groups.

  • Problems of nation-building and Issues of national integration-Communal – ism, Regionalism, Linguism, Ethnic cleavages, Ideology and Strategies of leadership.

  • Economic Profile and Development Strategies:

  • Traditional economics – nature and bases.

  • Pattern of economic development and growth strategies.

  • Trade, aid and investment.

  • Problems of economic development.

  • Foreign Policies of South Asian States:

  • Determinants and objectives.

  • Role of external powers.

  • Intra – regional cooperation and conflict – India’s relations with its neighbours.

  • Regional Cooperation in South Asia:

  • Historical antecedents – Political and economic imperatives.

  • Genesis and growth of South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation ( SAARC ).

  • Challenges and prospects of regional cooperation in South Asia.

  • South Asia in World Affairs, South – East Asia in World Affairs.






Unit XII




  • Making of the Constitution – Development of the Republic and making of the nation.

  • Constitutional Amendments-Structural changes, political and social movements.

  • Presidency, congress and judiciary in recent times.

  • US Role in UN and other international organizations.

  • United States Economic and Global role in post-Cold War Era.

  • Problems of minorities; Afro – American, Hispanic and Asian Americans Diasporic experience.

  • Contemporary American Society and polity.

  • International Economic Issues: Trade regime (WTO ) and economic groupings, Role of International Financial Institutions.

  • Role of Multi – national Corporations.






Unit – XIII




  • America and Europe in World Affairs, Latin America in World Affairs.

  • Development of Constitutional process in Latin America – Translation from authoritarianism of democracy.

  • US-Latin American relations and its implications in inter-American affairs. Cultural, economic and trade relations between Europe and Latin America. Problems of Human Rights in Latin America.

  • The role of multilateral agencies in containing international and narcot terrorism; Legal mechanism to preserve peace and security in the region.

  • Role of Latin America and the Caribbean in global and regional organizations

  • Trade and Economic grouping in Latin America.

  • India and Latin America – growing partnership.



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