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Anthropology 2013 December UGC NET Solved Question Paper III



1. Who among the following in the Indian Varna system is not considered twice-born?





(A) Brahman





(B) Kshatriya





(C) Vaishya





(D) Shudra





Answer: (D)








2. The term “Vote Bank” was coined by





(A) Andre Beteille





(B) S.C. Dubey





(C) M.N. Srinivas





(D) L.P. Vidyarthi





Answer: (C)








3. The focus on ‘Imponderability of daily life’ is the essential feature of





(A) Focus group discussion





(B) Structured interview





(C) Participant observation





(D) Census





Answer: (C)








4. The percentage of the Scheduled Tribe Population as per 2001 Census of India was





(A) 6.2%





(B) 7.2%





(C) 8.2%





(D) 9.2%





Answer: (C)








5. “Rites of Passage” refers to





(A) Life crisis rituals





(B) Rituals performed for ancestors





(C) War rituals





(D) Village rituals





Answer: (A)








6. The “Anthropological survey of India” is considered as the largest Anthropological Organization in





(A) India





(B) South Asia





(C) Asia





(D) World





Answer: (D)








7. Electrophoresis means





(A) Separation of charged particles under the influence of electric current





(B) Coating one metal over the other





(C) Blood grouping





(D) Inter-cell communication





Answer: (A)








8. Hominization is a process indicating the evolution upto





(A) Homo habilis





(B) Homo sapiens





(C) Homo erectus





(D) Homo ergaster





Answer: (B)








9. Jane Goodall has spent her entire life studying the behaviour of





(A) Orangutans





(B) Baboon





(C) Gibbons





(D) Chimpanzees





Answer: (D)








10. The human histocompatibility complex is located on





(A) Chromosome 4





(B) Chromosome 6





(C) Chromosome 17





(D) Chromosome 21





Answer: (B)








11. The chromosomal constitution of Klinefelter’s syndrome is





(A) 47, XXY





(B) 47, XYY





(C) 47, XXX





(D) None of the above





Answer: (A)








12. “Heath and Carter” method is used for studying





(A) Human Physiology





(B) Human Physique





(C) Human Growth





(D) Human Nutrition Status





Answer: (B)








13. Racemization is a very specific method of dating fossils. This involves the estimation of





(A) Flourine trapped in a fossil





(B) Levo-rotatory protein





(C) Mineralization





(D) Radioactive isotopes





Answer: (B)








14. Harappan civilization extends from Ropar to Sutagendor. The Harappan site located in Haryana is





(A) Kalibangan





(B) Mitathal





(C) Kotdiji





(D) Lothal





Answer: (B)








15. Man in India during Neolithic period sometimes lived in pit dwelling. Which one of the following Neolithic sites of India has the evidence of pit dwelling?





(A) Brahmagiri





(B) Palavoy





(C) Burzohom





(D) Daojali Hading





Answer: (C)








16. Which of the following are protective provisions for Scheduled Tribes as per the Indian Constitution?





i. Article 15(4), 16(4) and 23





ii. Article 46 and 164





iii. Article 332





iv. Article 338





Codes:





(A) i, ii and iii





(B) ii, iii and iv





(C) iii, iv and i





(D) i, ii, iii and iv





Answer: (D)








17. Identify the States which have implemented 50% reservation for women in Panchayati Raj institutions (PRIs):





i. Madhya Pradesh





ii. Bihar





iii. Himachal Pradesh





iv. Goa





(A) i, ii and iii only





(B) All i, ii, iii and iv





(C) i, iii and iv only





(D) ii, iii and iv only





Answer: (A)








18. Theories relating to social structure have been given by





i. Radcliffe Brown





ii. Raymond Firth





iii. Edmund Leach





iv. Brownislaw Malinowski





(A) i, ii & iv only





(B) i, ii & iii only





(C) All i, ii, iii & iv





(D) i, iii and iv only





Answer: (B)








19. The principal authorities for planning and implementation of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) are





i. Panchayats at District level





ii. Panchayats at Intermediate level





iii. Panchayats at village level





iv. Panchayats at Hamlet level





(A) i, ii, iii and iv





(B) i, ii, and iii





(C) i, ii and iv





(D) ii, iii and iv





Answer: (B)








20. Among the Indian anthropologists, who spearheaded village studies are,





i. Andre Beteille





ii. Irawati Karve





iii. M.N. Srinivas





iv. S.C. Dube





(A) All i, ii, iii & iv





(B) ii, iii & iv only





(C) i, ii & iii only





(D) i, iii & iv only





Answer: (D)





21. Which of the following are the key concepts of Ethnography?





i. Field work





ii. The Field





iii. Participant observation





iv. Case study





Codes:





(A) i, ii and iii are correct.





(B) ii and iv are correct.





(C) i, ii, iii and iv are correct.





(D) i and iii are correct.





Answer: (C)








22. Read the statements and choose the correct answer from the options given:





The specific features of chorionic villus sampling are





i. The sample contains foetal cells only





ii. It is an invasive procedure





iii. It is performed when the foetus is 20 weeks old





iv. It can detect most of the genetic diseases.





The statements not applicable to chorionic villus sampling are





Codes:





(A) i, ii, iii





(B) iii, iv





(C) i, ii, iv





(D) i, iv





Answer: (D)








23. Read the statements and choose the answer from the options given:





i. Autosomal dominant inheritance will be shown in 50% of the offspring.





ii. The males will express in higher frequency than females.





iii. The trait will be revealed in every generation.





iv. The trait is expressed in both the sexes.





Codes:





(A) i, ii, iii





(B) i, iii, iv





(C) ii, iii, iv





(D) iii, iv, ii





Answer: (B)








24. The features of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are:





i. It occurs in large population.





ii. The gene frequency fluctuates randomly.





iii. Mating is selective





iv. It is not influenced by mutation and selection.





The statements not applicable to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are





Codes:





(A) ii, iii, iv





(B) i, iii, iv





(C) i, ii, iii





(D) iii, i, ii





Answer: (A)








25. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?





(A) Prosimian – Gorilla





(B) Dryopithecus – Indonesia





(C) Peking Man – Africa





(D) Homo habilis – Olduvai Gorge





Answer: (D)








26. Which of the following statements about fossils is true?





(A) All body parts of an organism are equally likely to become fossilized.





(B) There are fossils of all species of organisms that have ever lived.





(C) Fossils in upper layers of rock are likely to be older than fossils in lower layers.





(D) Fossils are most likely to be found in sedimentary rocks.





Answer: (D)








27. Which of the following act(s) like a molecular copy machine(s) rapidly, making large numbers of specific sequences of DNA? Use the code to answer.





a. DNA fingerprinting





b. DNA Ligase





c. Bacteria





d. Polymerase chain reaction





Codes:





(A) Both c and d





(B) a, b, c & d





(C) Only d





(D) Only a





Answer: (A)








28. Mesolithic culture in India is found in the site namely





(A) Chauntra





(B) Sangana Kallu





(C) Tilwara





(D) Navdatolli





Answer: (C)








29. Earliest evidence of domestication of dog was found at:





(A) Jericho





(B) Maglamosian





(C) Piklihal





(D) Tardenoisian





Answer: (B)








30. Which among the following is an upper Palaeolithic site of India?





(A) Vadamadurai





(B) Birbhanpur





(C) Adamgarh





(D) Renigunta





Answer: (D)








31. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): A hypothesis leads either to support or refute or modify an existing theory.





Reason (R): A hypothesis is a proposition which can be empirically tested to determine its validity.





In the context of above two statements, which one of the following is correct?





Codes:





(A) Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).





(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).





(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.





(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.





Answer: (A)








32. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): Blood-wealth is a payment made by an offender to a victim, and the latter may be forced to accept the fee even if he is unwilling.





Reason (R): This is a social sanction to settle disputes and avoid feuding between individuals and groups.





In the context of above two statements, which one of the following is correct?





Codes:





(A) Both (A) and (R) are true.





(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).





(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.





(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.





Answer: (A)








33. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): During the World War II the U.S. Government financed a number of studies to know the national character of the enemy countries.





Reason (R): There exists consistent difference between the cultures that can be analysed as psychological types.





In the context of above two statements, which one of the following is correct?





Codes:





(A) Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).





(B) (A) is true, but (R) is false.





(C) (A) is false, but (R) is true.





(D) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).





Answer: (D)








34. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and another labelled as Reason (R):





Assertion (A): In India, women empowerment is increasing among the tribal communities.





Reason (R): Literacy and Education is improving amongst the tribal communities in India.





Codes:





(A) Both (A) and (R) are true, and





(R) is the correct explanation of (A).





(B) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).





(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.





(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.





Answer: (A)








35. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): Cultural ecology study role of environment in the unilinear evolution of culture.





Reason (R): Evolution of culture is based on the enlargement of geographical territory.





In the context of above two statements, which one of the following is correct?





Codes:





(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct.





(B) (A) is wrong, but (R) is correct.





(C) Both (A) and (R) are wrong.





(D) (A) is correct, but (R) is wrong.





Answer: (C)








36. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): Persons suffering from alkaptonuria excrete urine that turns black on exposure to air.





Reason (R): This is due to presence of a substance Alkapton (homogentisic acid) in their urine.





In the context of above two statements, which one of the following is correct?





Codes:





(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).





(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).





(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.





(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.





Answer: (A)








37. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): Inner epicanthic fold is present in the Mongoloid populations.





Reason (R): Not all anatomical traits can be as easily understood as adaptations to the environment.





Codes:





(A) (A) is correct and (R) is wrong.





(B) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.





(C) Both (A) and (R) are wrong.





(D) Both (A) and (R) are correct.





Answer: (D)








38. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): Grooming is a characteristic feature of the non-human primates.





Reason (R): Non-human primates groom one another for social bonding as well as parasite removal.





In the context of above two statements, which one of the following is correct?





Codes:





(A) (A) is correct and (R) is wrong.





(B) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.





(C) Both (A) and (R) are wrong.





(D) Both (A) and (R) are correct.





Answer: (D)








39. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): Obesity is very common among the tribals.





Reason (R): Sedentary life style results in obesity.





In the context of above two statements, which one of the following is correct?





Codes:





(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and





(R) is the correct explanation of (A).





(B) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).





(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.





(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.





Answer: (D)








40. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): Fauresmith tradition of East Africa represents middle Palaeolithic features.





Reason (R): Traits of Fauresmith culture do not bear legacy of Stellenbosch culture.





In the context of above two statements, which one of the following is correct?





Codes:





(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct.





(B) (A) is correct, but (R) is wrong.





(C) (R) is correct, but (A) is wrong.





(D) Both (A) and (R) are wrong.





Answer: (B)








41. Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).





Assertion (A): Mousterian tradition represents a transition between lower and upper Palaeolithic in Western Europe.





Reason (R): It shows different facies with elements of both lower and upper Palaeolithic.





In the context of above two statements, which one of the following is correct?





Codes:





(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct.





(B) (R) is correct, but (A) is wrong.





(C) Both (A) and (R) are wrong.





(D) (R) is wrong, but (A) is correct.





Answer: (A)








42. Arrange the following social and religious movements in India according to S.C. Dube in ascending order:





(A) Muslim Reform Movements – Arya Samaj – Prarthana Samaj – Brahma Samaj





(B) Brahma Samaj – Prarthana Samaj – Arya Samaj – Muslim Reform Movements





(C) Arya Samaj – Brahma Samaj – Muslim Reform Movements – Prarthana Samaj





(D) Prarthana Samaj – Muslim Reform Movements – Brahma Samaj – Arya Samaj





Answer: (B)








43. Identify the correct sequence of the following steps in data processing and data analysis:





(A) Coding – data entry – data cleaning – data analysis





(B) Data cleaning – coding – data analysis – data entry





(C) Data entry – coding – data cleaning – data analysis





(D) Data analysis – data cleaning – data entry – coding





Answer: (A)








44. Identify the correct sequence in the descending order of social divisions in Tribal society.





(A) Families – Clans – Sub-tribes – Tribe





(B) Tribe – Sub-tribes – Clans – Families





(C) Clans – Families – Tribe – Sub-tribes





(D) Sub-tribes – Tribe – Families – Clans





Answer: (B)








45. Identify the correct sequence of the following in the course of ethnomedical treatment:





(A) Ethnomedical specialist – therapy – etiology – disease classification





(B) Therapy – disease classification – ethnomedical specialist – etiology





(C) Etiology – disease classification – ethnomedical specialist – therapy





(D) Etiology – therapy – disease classification – ethnomedical specialist





Answer: (C)








46. Arrange the Rinas in Hindu thought enumerated in the Satpath Brahmana in ascending order:





(A) Rinas to God – Rinas to Seers – Rinas to ancestors – Rinas to Fellow beings





(B) Rinas to Fellow beings – Rinas to ancestors – Rinas to Seers – Rinas to God





(C) Rinas to ancestors – Rinas to God – Rinas to Fellow beings – Rinas to Seers





(D) Rinas to Seers – Rinas to Fellow beings – Rinas to God – Rinas to ancestors





Answer: (A)








47. Identify the correct sequence of the following given by George James Frazer:





(A) Magic – Religion – Science





(B) Religion – Science – Magic





(C) Science – Religion – Magic





(D) Religion – Magic – Science





Answer: (A)








48. Identify the correct sequence of phases of cell cycle.





(A) G1 – G0 – S – M





(B) G1 – S – G2 – M





(C) G0 – S – G1 – G2 – M





(D) G1 – S – G0 – G2 – M





Answer: (B)








49. Identify the correct sequence of the following geneticists in the chronological order in which they made their contribution:





(A) Sutton & Boveri – T.H. Morgan – Mendel – Johannsen





(B) Johannsen – Sutton & Boveri – T.H. Morgan – Mendel





(C) Mendel – Johannsen – Sutton & Boveri – T.H. Morgan





(D) T.H. Morgan – Johannsen – Mendel – Sutton & Boveri





Answer: (C)








50. Identify the correct sequence in the order of their discoveries/ establishment:





(A) Structure of DNA – Hardy- Weinberg Law – Human Chromosome number – Human Genome Project





(B) Hardy-Weinberg Law – Human Genome Project – Human Chromosome number – Structure of DNA





(C) Hardy-Weinberg Law – Human Chromosome number – Structure of DNA – Human Genome Project





(D) Human Chromosome number – Hardy-Weinberg Law – Structure of DNA – Human Genome Project





Answer: (C)








51. Identify the correct sequence of the following authorities in the order they gave their racial classifications:





(A) Johann Blumenbach – Deniker – Boyd – Garn





(B) Garn – Deniker – Boyd – Johann Blumenbach





(C) Deniker – Garn – Boyd – Johann Blumenbach





(D) Boyd – Johann – Blumenbach – Deniker – Garn





Answer: (A)








52. Identify the correct sequence of ‘actions’ the genetic counselling involves:





(A) Diagnosis – Risk assessment – Communication and Discussion – Long term contact and support





(B) Risk assessment – Diagnosis Long term contact and support – Communication and Discussion





(C) Diagnosis – Communication and Discussion – Long term contact and support – Risk assessment





(D) Communication and Discussion – Diagnosis – Risk assessment – Long term contact and support





Answer: (A)








53. Identify the correct sequence of the following bones in the order they are placed from head to toe position:





(A) Femur – Fibula – Tarsals – Phalanges





(B) Fibula – Femur – Phalanges – Tarsals





(C) Tarsals – Femur – Fibula – Phalanges





(D) Phalanges – Femur – Tarsals – Fibula





Answer: (A)








54. Arrange the following methods of dating in order in which they were discovered:





i. Varve Analysis





ii. Radio Carbon





iii. Stratigraphy





iv. Racemization





Codes:





(A) i ii iii iv





(B) iii i iv ii





(C) iii ii i iv





(D) iv ii i iii





Answer: (C)








55. Arrange the following material traits of early man in order of their emergence:





i. Pestle and Mortar





ii. Harpoon





iii. Point





iv. Bow and arrow





(A) ii i iii iv





(B) iv iii ii i





(C) i ii iii iv





(D) iii ii iv i





Answer: (D)








56. Arrange the following stone tool making techniques in order of their chronology:





i. Bi-face technique





ii. Pressure flaking





iii. Block on block technique





iv. Grinding technique





Codes:





(A) iv ii i iii





(B) iii i ii iv





(C) i ii iii iv





(D) ii iv i iii





Answer: (B)








57. Match items in List – I with items in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                                        List – II





a. Rangbang                                                                i. Bhuiya





b. Dhumkuria                                                              ii. Muria Gonds





c. Ghotul                                                                     iii. Oraon





d. Dhangarbassa                                                          iv. Bhotia





Codes:





       a b c d





(A) ii iv i iii





(B) iv iii ii i





(C) iii i iv ii





(D) i ii iii iv





Answer: (B)








58. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                                        List – II





a. S.C. Dube                                                                i. Kishan Garh





b. M.N. Srinivas                                                          ii. Ramkheri





c. A.C. Mayer                                                                         iii. Rampura





d. McKim Marriott                                                     iv. Shamirpet





Codes:





       a b c d





(A) i ii iii iv





(B) iv iii ii i





(C) iii iv i ii





(D) ii i iv iii





Answer: (B)








59. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                        List – II





a. Shaman                    i. One who uses supernatural powers for anti-social purposes





b. Priest                       ii. One who has the capacity to call spirits to kill or cause harm





c. Sorcerer                   iii. Religious functionary whose authority is bestowed upon him by the society





d. Witch                      iv. A religious specialist who receives the power directly from the super natural sources





Codes:





       a b c d





(A) iv iii i ii





(B) i ii iii iv





(C) iv iii ii i





(D) ii iii iv i





Answer: (A)








60. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                List – II





a. Class                                                i. Descent Group





b. Tribe                                                ii. Coloured Group





c. Clan                                                 iii. Excluded territorial group





d. Varna                                              iv. Economic group





Codes:





       a b c d





(A) i ii iii iv





(B) ii i iv iii





(C) iii iv ii i





(D) iv iii i ii





Answer: (D)








61. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                                        List – II





a. Universalization and Parochialization                     i. M.N. Srinivas





b. Little and Great Tradition                                       ii. L.P. Vidyarthi





c. Sacred Complex                                                      iii. Robert Redfield





d. Dominant Caste                                                      iv. McKim Marriott





Codes:





       a b c d





(A) ii i iv iii





(B) iii iv i ii





(C) iv iii ii i





(D) i ii iii iv





Answer: (C)








62. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?





List – I                                                List – II





(A) Cross-cousin                                 Children of opposite sex siblings





(B) Parallel cousin                               Children of classificatory cousins





(C) Affinal relative                             Individuals related through marriage





(D) Consanguineal relative                 Individuals related through biological connection





Answer: (B)








63. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                            List – II





a. Non-invasive prenatal testing                      i. Amniocentesis





b. Invasive prenatal testing                             ii. Diabetes





c. Gene therapy                                               iii. Matenal serum screening





d. Recombinant DNA technology                  iv. Adenosine deaminase deficiency





Codes:





        a b c d





(A) iii i iv ii





(B) iv iii ii i





(C) ii i iii iv





(D) i iv iii ii





Answer: (A)








64. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                            List – II





a. Turner’s Syndrome                                      i. 18 Trisomy





b. Klinefelter’s Syndrome                               ii. 44, XO





c. Edward’s Syndrome                                   iii. 44, XXY





d. Down’s Syndrome                                      iv. 21 Trisomy





Codes:





       a b c d





(A) ii iv i iii





(B) ii iii i iv





(C) i iii ii iv





(D) iii i ii iv





Answer: (B)








65. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                List – II





a. Insulin                                             i. Hemophilia





b. Erythropoetin                                  ii. Short Stature





c. Factor VIII                                      iii. Diabetes





d. Growth Hormone                           iv. Anaemia





Codes:





        a b c d





(A) iii iv i ii





(B) i ii iii iv





(C) iv iii ii i





(D) ii iv iii i





Answer: (A)








66. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                List – II





a. Stature                                             i. Infantometer





b. Supine length                                  ii. Skinfold callipers





c. Ear length                                        iii. Stadiometer





d. Biceps                                             iv. Sliding Callipers





Codes:





        a b c d





(A) iv ii i iii





(B) i ii iii iv





(C) iii i iv ii





(D) i iii ii iv





Answer: (C)








67. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                List – II





a. Albinism                                          i. Tyrosinase





b. Galactosemia                                   ii. Homogentisic acid oxidase





c. Phenylketonuria                              iii. Galactose-1-phosphodyl transferase





d. Alkaptonuria                                   iv. Phenyl alanine hydroxylase





Codes:





       a b c d





(A) i iii iv ii





(B) iii ii i iv





(C) iv iii ii i





(D) i ii iii iv





Answer: (B)








68. Match an item in List – I with an item in List – II. Use the codes given below:





List – I                                                List – II





a. Correlation coefficient                    i. Frequency distribution that is symmetrical around the mean





b. Standard deviation                                     ii. Measure of dispersion around the mean





c. Normal distribution                         iii. Quantitative measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables





d. Heritability                                      iv. Proportion of phenotypic variation in a population attributable to genotypic differences





Codes:





        a b c d





(A) iv iii ii i





(B) i iii iv ii





(C) ii i iii iv





(D) iii ii i iv





Answer: (D)








69. This consists of two lists of statements or terms and the candidates has to match an item in one list with an item in the other:





List – I (Name of the book)                List – II (Name of the Author)





a. In pursuit of the past                       i. Mortimer Wheeler





b. Adam’s Ancestor                            ii. Lewis Binford





c. Archaeology and Society                iii. L.S.B. Leaky





d. The Indus Civilization                    iv. Graham Clarke





Codes:





       a b c d





(A) ii i iii iv





(B) i iv iii ii





(C) ii iii iv i





(D) iv ii iii i





Answer: (C)








70. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?





(A) Burin technology                                      Middle Palaeolithic culture





(B) Natufia                                                      Mesolithic





(C) Barbed Harpoon                                       Lower Palaeolithic





(D) Mindel Glacial                                          Eocene





 Answer: (B)





Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow: (Q. Nos. 71 to 75)





Humankind is undergoing evolution with a new twist. Among many animal species, the individuals that survive and breed are the stock selected by nature to continue the species. But Homo sapiens is a social and cultural species. Just as the infertile worker bees make an essential contribution to the survival of the bee colony, so too in our own society, all members contribute to the species’ survival even if they bear no children. They do so all the more as our skills and roles in society become increasingly specialized (like the bees’). In the present state of human overpopulation, it is clear that those who do not reproduce are making a greater contribution to the species as a whole than those who do, because the stress of overdense populations is the greatest threat to our survival.





For a species like ours, whose survival depends on culture (which is based on knowledge), it is essential to use all available knowledge and understanding to achieve better adaptation to a changing environment. This is perhaps our most difficult problem: each new cultural adaptation we make alters the environment to which we are adapting. New adaptations increase population; greater population densities require further adaptations; new adaptations deplete world resources; resource depletion requires further adaptation. And so it goes on. We find ourselves in a vicious circle of ever-increasing instability.





Essential now is an all-out attempt to break that accelerating positive feedback loop and bring about new stability in population size, in technological investment, in consumption.











71. Why is evolution of humankind different from the other animals?





(A) Human species belong to the group of higher animals in the animal kingdom.





(B) Humankind is a social and cultural species.





(C) Human stock selected by nature alone survive and breed.





(D) Unproductive human beings constitute a burden to the society.





Answer: (B)








72. How is the survival of human kind different from the survival of other animals?





(A) The individuals who breed successfully alone contribute to the survival.





(B) Those individuals who do not reproduce also have a great role to play in the survival.





(C) Human over-population contributes to survival.





(D) Specialization of skills and roles has negative effect on survival.





Answer: (B)








73. In what way the society of bees is comparable to that of Homosapiens?





(A) Infertile bees contribute to the survival.





(B) Only fertile bees contribute to the survival.





(C) Skills and roles in case of bees are not different from that of humans.





(D) Population increase is not different from that of Homosapiens





Answer: (A)








74. What is the greatest threat to the survival of Human species?





(A) Changing environment





(B) Lack of sufficient knowledge





(C) Lack of better adaptation





(D) Over population





Answer: (D)








75. What is the vicious circle of ever-increasing instability?





(A) Increase in population and adaptation → depletion of resources → further adaptation.





(B) Increase in population → depletion of resources → change in environment





(C) Depletion in resources → increase in population → changing environment





(D) Greater population density → change in environment → depletion in resources





Answer: (A)


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